Writing on graph paper

Scientific research articles provide a method for scientists to communicate with other scientists about the results of their research. A standard format is used writing on graph paper these articles, in which the author presents the research in an orderly, logical manner.

This doesn’t necessarily reflect the order in which you did or thought about the work. Make your title specific enough to describe the contents of the paper, but not so technical that only specialists will understand. The title should be appropriate for the intended audience. For published articles, other people who made substantial contributions to the work are also listed as authors. An abstract, or summary, is published together with a research article, giving the reader a “preview” of what’s to come. Such abstracts may also be published separately in bibliographical sources, such as Biologic al Abstracts. They allow other scientists to quickly scan the large scientific literature, and decide which articles they want to read in depth.

Your abstract should be one paragraph, of 100-250 words, which summarizes the purpose, methods, results and conclusions of the paper. It is not easy to include all this information in just a few words. Start by writing a summary that includes whatever you think is important, and then gradually prune it down to size by removing unnecessary words, while still retaini ng the necessary concepts. Don’t use abbreviations or citations in the abstract. It should be able to stand alone without any footnotes. What question did you ask in your experiment? The introduction summarizes the relevant literature so that the reader will understand why you were interested in the question you asked.

One to fo ur paragraphs should be enough. End with a sentence explaining the specific question you asked in this experiment. How did you answer this question? There should be enough information here to allow another scientist to repeat your experiment. Look at other papers that have been published in your field to get some idea of what is included in this section. If you had a complicated protocol, it may helpful to include a diagram, table or flowchart to explain the methods you used.

Do not put results in this section. You may, however, include preliminary results that were used to design the main experiment that you are reporting on. I conducted all subsequent experiments between 11 pm and 6 am. If you used human subjects, did they consent to participate. If you used animals, what measures did you take to minimize pain? This is where you present the results you’ve gotten. Use graphs and tables if appropriate, but also summarize your main findings in the text.

You don’t necessarily have to include all the data you’ve gotten during the semester. Use appropriate methods of showing data. Don’t try to manipulate the data to make it look like you did more than you actually did. 3 were not affected, and the third mouse got away. Enzyme activity at various temperatures”, not “My results”. For graphs, you should also label the x and y axes.

Don’t use a table or graph just to be “fancy”. If you can summarize the information in one sentence, then a table or graph is not necessary. Highlight the most significant results, but don’t just repeat what you’ve written in the Results section. How do these results relate to the original question? Do the data support your hypothesis? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported?