This is the latest how to write a essay about a poem revision, reviewed on 10 February 2019. This article is about the art form. Poem”, “Poems”, and “Poetic” redirect here.
Raphael: famous poets recite alongside the nine Muses atop Mount Parnassus. Poetry has a very long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, and panegyric and elegiac court poetry was developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile, Niger and Volta river valleys . Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Sumerian terracotta tablet from Nippur, Iraq. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Some scholars believe that the art of poetry may predate literacy.
Others, however, suggest that poetry did not necessarily predate writing. Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were initially lyrics. The efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, and what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in “poetics”—the study of the aesthetics of poetry.
Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to define and assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle’s Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, and the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre. Aristotle’s work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. This does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic “Negative Capability”.
During this period, there was also substantially more interaction among the various poetic traditions, in part due to the spread of European colonialism and the attendant rise in global trade. In addition to a boom in translation, during the Romantic period numerous ancient works were rediscovered. Some 20th-century literary theorists, relying less on the opposition of prose and poetry, focused on the poet as simply one who creates using language, and poetry as what the poet creates. The rejection of traditional forms and structures for poetry that began in the first half of the 20th century coincided with a questioning of the purpose and meaning of traditional definitions of poetry and of distinctions between poetry and prose, particularly given examples of poetic prose and prosaic poetry. Recently, postmodernism has come to convey more completely prose and poetry as distinct entities, and also among genres of poetry, as having meaning only as cultural artifacts. The early 21st-century poetic tradition appears to continue to strongly orient itself to earlier precursor poetic traditions such as those initiated by Whitman, Emerson, and Wordsworth.
The literary critic Geoffrey Hartman has used the phrase “the anxiety of demand” to describe the contemporary response to older poetic traditions as “being fearful that the fact no longer has a form”, building on a trope introduced by Emerson. Prosody is the study of the meter, rhythm, and intonation of a poem. Rhythm and meter are different, although closely related. The methods for creating poetic rhythm vary across languages and between poetic traditions. Metrical rhythm generally involves precise arrangements of stresses or syllables into repeated patterns called feet within a line. The chief device of ancient Hebrew Biblical poetry, including many of the psalms, was parallelism, a rhetorical structure in which successive lines reflected each other in grammatical structure, sound structure, notional content, or all three. The formal patterns of meter used in Modern English verse to create rhythm no longer dominate contemporary English poetry.