The purpose of this study is to examine the history of the term “critical thinking” and related terms. This study is a review of the literature from 1910 to 1992, where the meanings, definitions, and descriptions of these terms are examined using philosophical analysis. The critical thinking movement seems to have begun with the work of John Dewey from 1910 to 1939 and his use of the terms “reflective thinking” and inquiry” which he based on the scientific method. History of critical thinking 1940 to 1961, Edward M.
Othanel Smith broadened the meaning of the term “critical thinking” to include the examination of statements. With the work of Robert H. The conclusion of this study is that the meanings of the terms “critical thinking” and “problem solving” overlap or intersect. Further, this study suggests the continued use of these two terms, but recommends the introduction of new terms to describe the relationship between the terms “problem solving” and “critical thinking. Machine translated pages not guaranteed for accuracy. Click Here for our professional translations. The intellectual roots of critical thinking are as ancient as its etymology, traceable, ultimately, to the teaching practice and vision of Socrates 2,500 years ago who discovered by a method of probing questioning that people could not rationally justify their confident claims to knowledge.
Confused meanings, inadequate evidence, or self-contradictory beliefs often lurked beneath smooth but largely empty rhetoric. He established the importance of seeking evidence, closely examining reasoning and assumptions, analyzing basic concepts, and tracing out implications not only of what is said but of what is done as well. His method of questioning is now known as “Socratic Questioning” and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy. In his mode of questioning, Socrates highlighted the need in thinking for clarity and logical consistency. Europe began to think critically about religion, art, society, human nature, law, and freedom.