Live critical thinking events in Europe and North America! The Foundation is a non-profit organization that seeks to promote essential change in education critical thinking courses online society through the cultivation of fairminded critical thinking–thinking which embodies intellectual empathy, intellectual humility, intellectual perseverance, intellectual integrity and intellectual responsibility. Limited scholarships are available for this event. For facilitators working to bring substantive critical thinking across their respective institutions, into specific departments or divisions, or into their consulting or training work.
April 12 – April 14, 2019 at Compton Gardens in Northwest Arkansas. Join us for the 39th World Conference! We also serve businesses, military, and government. Fall 2019 Registration is Open Now!
The Paulian Framework for critical thinking has been developed and discussed through decades of scholarship by the world’s foremost experts on substantive, explicit, ethical rationality. Our guides encapsulate this framework and many of its applications. The Thinker’s Guide Library Set of 22 Guides. Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment. The earliest documentation of critical thinking are the teachings of Socrates recorded by Plato. Socrates established the fact that one cannot depend upon those in “authority” to have sound knowledge and insight. He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational.
He established the importance of seeking evidence, closely examining reasoning and assumptions, analyzing basic concepts, and tracing out implications not only of what is said but of what is done as well. His method of questioning is now known as “Socratic questioning” and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy. Socrates set the agenda for the tradition of critical thinking, namely, to reflectively question common beliefs and explanations, carefully distinguishing beliefs that are reasonable and logical from those that—however appealing to our native egocentrism, however much they serve our vested interests, however comfortable or comforting they may be—lack adequate evidence or rational foundation to warrant belief. Critical thinking was described by Richard W. The “first wave” of critical thinking is often referred to as a ‘critical analysis’ that is clear, rational thinking involving critique. Thinking about one’s thinking in a manner designed to organize and clarify, raise the efficiency of, and recognize errors and biases in one’s own thinking.
Critical thinking is inward-directed with the intent of maximizing the rationality of the thinker. Contemporary critical thinking scholars have expanded these traditional definitions to include qualities, concepts, and processes such as creativity, imagination, discovery, reflection, empathy, connecting knowing, feminist theory, subjectivity, ambiguity, and inconclusiveness. Some definitions of critical thinking exclude these subjective practices. This section needs additional citations for verification. This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia’s quality standards.